Book Expo America

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Good e-Reader is proud to be alongside Publishers Weekly as being the two main media sponsors of IDPF Digital Book 2014. This is now a two day conference that takes place May 28-29, 2014 at the Javits Center, New York City. This is the first year the conference has moved to a full two day format and many of the top publishers, tech companies and authors will be in attendance.

This is the second year in a row that Good e-Reader has thrown in their support for the IDPF. The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) is the global trade and standards organization dedicated to the development and promotion of electronic publishing and content consumption.

The work of the IDPF promotes the development of electronic publishing applications and products that will benefit creators of content, makers of reading systems, and consumers. The IDPF develops and maintains the EPUB content publication standard that enables the creation and transport of reflowable digital books and other types of content as digital publications that are interoperable between disparate EPUB-compliant reading devices and applications.

Stay tuned when we make a big announcement tomorrow on the speakers and sessions.

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Book Expo America is introducing new programming to assist self-published authors.  The new Author Hub project will run in parallel with a conference introduced in 2012 called  uPublishU.

The Goal of Authors Hub is to “to further integrate the self-publishing community into the publishing mainstream by providing platforms where entrepreneurial authors may interact and share the spotlight at North America’s leading book industry event.” This year’s uPublishU day-long conference is set for Saturday, May 31.

The event will focus on two different types of authors and will provide guidance and assistance. The first will focus on an author’s first book and exactly how they bring it to the market. The second will give more specialized knowledge to indie authors who have been in the game for a few titles.


What’s Next for BookExpo?

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Arguably one of the premier book industry events every year is the BookExpo America conference, which takes places in late May at the Javits Center in New York. The event grown quickly to encompass nearly every aspect of the publishing industry: special day-long conferences on the digital industry, a stand-alone event tied to BEA that focuses solely on self-publishing, even a book blogger space with author/speakers, interview opportunities, and more.

But in an effort to stay relevant and reach as wide an exhibiting audience as possible, BEA will be moving from New York in 2016, staging instead in Chicago. But following the test run there, the organizers are looking seriously at other venues to provide as much diversity and opportunity as possible.

The organizers released a blog post asking for input from industry professionals and industry watchers alike. Where should BEA go after Chicago? Critics have argued that you won’t find a US city more bookcentric and publishing oriented than New York City, but NY is also a “destination” city, meaning a lot of attendees will make the trip because…hey, it’s New York.

Some of the other potential locations have been shot down due to concerns about access to plentiful hotel spaces, lack of round the clock direct access flights, complicated ground transportation or parking, and more. Beyond that, BEA organizers understand that a lot of the business of a conference like this takes place off-site at sponsored dinners and events, and that attendees and exhibitors alike are more likely to participate if those venues are unique, intriguing, historical, and more.

For the opportunity to weigh in on where you think BEA’s future should roll out, check out their blog to vote.


BookExpo America is still one of the premier publishing events in the world, and it has many facets. Authors will be on hand to autograph their books, publishers will display advanced copies of their upcoming titles, and even very real business meetings will take place between publishers and booksellers or librarians. It’s an all-encompassing showcase for everything book related.

In the last few years, this event has grown to include ebooks, and one of the most interesting sections of BEA is the Digital Zone. While ebook mainstays like Amazon and Kobo will set up massive eye-catching booths and have featured authors drop by, it’s really the smaller, out of the way booths from the new startups that can be the most interesting to watch.

This year’s event saw two particularly interesting startups bring their concepts to the event. The first, Red Shelf, was born out of a virtual document storage and sharing concept, Virdocs. The business model isn’t really all that new a concept. It’s a cloud-based ebook retailer that lets anyone read anywhere, on any wi-fi capable device.While the company isn’t only aimed at authors but actually caters to any business that has documents to store and share, it’s publishing concept is profound.

At first glance, it’s tempting to think, “Do we really need another ebook retailer?” But just as the current movement of indie authors decided to take more control over their work and publish their own books, Red Shelf enables authors with the right know-how to sell their content on the Red Shelf platform or the authors’ own websites at a fairly unheard of royalty. With plans ranging from free with a 20% cut, to as much a $199 per month with additional features and benefits, it just might be the answer to major ebook retailers and the lack of control over pricing that authors and publishers have felt.

The second was a company that GoodEReader has been watching eagerly: Story Sticker. This company creates QR code stickers in the shape of a darling teddy bear, and sells the stickers. Each sticker is activated by the Story Sticker app, allowing parents, grandparents, teachers, everyone to turn any book into a read-aloud story. The purchaser of the book and sticker records his own voice via a smartphone or tablet (Android coming soon), and gives the book to its recipient. Now, when the recipient of the book scans the QR code bear with his device, he hears the voice of the person who recorded it for him.

Story Sticker might seem like a sweet way to make a treasured keepsake, but the educational implications of this company are staggering. Apart from the very obvious applications of this product for low ability level readers or small children, the possibilities it presents for special education and ESL (English as a Second Language) students are vast.

Interestingly, this year’s BEA Digital Zone also featured a few startups whose products were still in development, but who had come to the event to display their “coming attractions” for ebooks and digital publishing.  Part of the discovery aspect that makes major events so enticing is the ability to envision what’s coming next, especially in the world of publishing.

otis chandler goodreads

Otis Chandler, the CEO of GoodReads, founded the company in 2006 and launched the first iteration of the company in 2007. Recently, he sold the company to Amazon for $100 million dollars and delivered a keynote speech at IDPF, talking about the growth of the platform and the future. He then spoke exclusively to Good e-Reader, talking about the future of GoodReads and alleviating concerns about the Amazon acquisition.

GoodReads is an online bookclub where users can rate and review books they have read and create their own collections. There are over 18 million members that participate in the culture and over 570 million books are currently on users shelves. Every single month, 11 million books are flagged as “Want to Read,” and every single second 250 more are added. Reviews are off the charts right now with over 857,000 currently in the system.

Authors are attracted to the GoodReads ecosystem, mainly because this is where the users are and the entire interface is fairly intuitive. Over 74,000 authors are registered in the system, actively engaging in Q/A and addressing questions from their fan base. James Patterson, Margaret Atwood, John Grisham, Nicolas Sparks, E.L. James, and Neil Gaiman are a few examples of the more active names.

One thing that GoodReads does very well is organize collections of quotes by famous authors and from specific books. You only have to Google for a specific author and likely the first result is from GoodReads. Over one million quotes are currently in the system and more are added every single day.

Before GoodReads ever got bought out by Amazon, it used to do business with the online giant. GoodReads used its API to gather book cover art, the number of pages, and other critical metadata. In early 2012, the company switched over to Ingram, the largest book distributor in the world. GoodReads also developed its own public API that allowed companies such as Kobo and Sony to use their rating system and reviews. I asked Otis if the Amazon acquisition meant the end of the public API and what should the bookstores do that depend on it. He answered, “We have no plans to discontinue our API for the foreseeable future, we know companies depend on it, and while I am in charge, it will be status quo.” Still, companies are worried about the future of their metadata and Sony has recently switched from using GoodReads to dealing with Sony and formed a partnership with iDreambooks to tap into its wellspring of ratings and critic reviews. Its business model centers around the aggregation of literary reviews from publications like the NYTimes and Washington Post and recommends books that were given a positive rating by 70% of critics. It functions a bit like RottenTomatoes or Metacritic in terms of ebooks and mainly focuses on bestsellers or perennial favorites. Currently, the company is adding reviews from all top-tier publications going as far back as 2008 in the next couple of weeks. It has thousands available right now, and tends to add more every day.

Otis mentioned that “GoodReads was originally developed just to share my reading lists with my friends and to recommend books to each other. In 2007, the landscape was radically different and there were only a few scant message boards with any kind of book recommendation going on. Honestly, at first when people I did not know started to join, I was ready to shut it down, or limit the people who could join. In the first year, 10 million books where shelves and we knew we were on to something.”

What does the future of GoodReads hold? “Amazon is letting us run the company autonomously, similar to Audible and Zappos. Of course, I now have a boss, but they are fairly liberal at letting us run the company the way we always have. We now have access to a larger network and shared technologies to expedite our growth and implement new features,” Otis answered. GoodReads is also building more functionality into Facebook and working on a number of new of initiatives.

The general consensus at IDPF this year was that Amazon merely bought GoodReads so the corporation did not have to compete with them. Amazon has its own VERY extensive user rating and review system and basically had no need to acquire GoodReads for this type of metadata. Most people believe that in a few years, if Amazon did not buy them, someone else would. It was a preemptive decision to buy the only massive book community that mattered on the internet and decide what to do with it later.


Sylvia Day is one of the best examples of an author who publishes on her own terms. She self-publishes and has a line of bestselling books dubbed “The Crossfire Trilogy.” Her stories have been translated into several languages, she’s been honored with the Romantic Times Reviewers’ Choice Award, the EPPIE award, the National Readers’ Choice Award, the Readers’ Crown, and multiple finalist nominations for Romance Writers of America’s prestigious RITA Award of Excellence. We caught up with her at Book Expo America and talked about always having to always be “on” in the world of social media and how she handles interacting with fans on her website and Twitter. We also talk about how she goes about writing a book and the best environment to make it happen.

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ingram spark

Ingram Spark is a new digital publishing solution aimed at small and boutique publishers. This new service is primarily aimed at publishers who expressed dissatisfaction with Ingram Lightning Source. Spark has a very simple user interface that can convert your word document or PDF file into a proper ebook and then distribute your work to Kobo, Amazon, Apple, and Barnes and Noble. Not only can your book be offered digitally, but you can opt into physical distribution to bookstores. Plus, when the book is ordered from the catalog, Ingram will print and ship it for you at no cost.

The entire backbone of Ingram Spark comes from Ingram Lightning Source. This is a very well developed platform that many large publishers use to distribute content digitally or to physical bookstores. The main complaint that we have heard over the years is that it was inaccessible to small and medium sized publishing companies due to the bulky and advanced interface.

There are a few key features to Ingram Spark that are worth mentioning. It has a conversion service that will take your PDF, Word, or other documents and convert it to ePUB or another ebook format of your choice. Most of the time, ebooks and tangible books require an ISBN number and customers will be diverted to Bowker to complete the transaction. You can track your sales on a unified portal that documents all of the important metrics. Every 24 hours, the data is repopulated, so most of your data will remain current. Speaking of sales, you can establish different prices, depending on the markets you want to target. On the beta version we saw, it only supports USA, Canada, European Union, and Australia. You can establish a publication date for when you want the book to be live, which aids publishers in adding their entire catalog in advance. When it comes to getting paid, you can attach your bank account to the portal and set a threshold limit on when the direct deposit will be made.

The most compelling feature on Spark is the ability to bundle your digital and physical version at the same time. There are plenty of advanced options to set up the tangible copy of the book, before it’s ever shipped. You can set up the interior type to be black and white, standard color, or premium color. There are even options to establish the binding, such as Case Laminate, Cloth Bound, Perfect Bound, and Saddle Stitch. Finally, you can even tweak the paper type and laminate type.

Ingram is one of the largest distribution companies in the world and handles millions of book titles being shipped to bookstores all over the world. It is responsible for actually shipping the Kobo brand of e-readers all over the world. The company’s far reach makes it the best choice for any small, medium, or large publishing houses. So, obviously, Ingram Spark is not free. If you want to have your ebook and Print on Demand edition available, it will cost a $49.00 fee per title. If you want to distribute the electronic version only, it will cost $25.00. No matter how many titles you have on Spark, there is an annual $12.00 fee to be continuously listed in the catalogs.

Ingram Spark is tentatively set to launch this July, but final release date may change as the system undergoes refinement. Once this has a full launch, I would seriously recommend this to most small and boutique publishers who are looking for further distribution than what Kindle Direct Publishing and Create Space can offer.

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The Kobo Aura HD is the most recent e-reader the Toronto based company has produced. It certainly buckles the trend of the standard six inch device that seems to be the industry standard. In a very short period of time, the Aura now accounts for over 25% of the company’s overall hardware sales, and is poised grow even more, as the availability in international markets starts to increase.

Sameer Hasan, Director, Product Management, gushed about the severe departure from the standard design Kobo employed with the Aura. He mentioned, “If the Kobo Glo was compared to a paperback novel, the Aura is much akin to a hardcover. Customers seem to identify with this larger display, and despite the premium price, it is selling very well.” One of the things that makes the Aura HD unique is the back of the case. In the first few generations of the Kobo line of eReaders they used to rely more heavily on outside design firms. Today that reliance has shifted more towards a talented in-house design team, while still partnering with firms like IDEO. The Aura, certainly bears no resemblance to previous iterations of hardware, that all used a quilted back. Sameer said, “The design references the simplest of things, like folded paper or the spine of a book. Ergonomically, the design allows the pads of your fingers to rest against the gentle angles for a good grip”.

Kobo has consistently stayed in the media limelight due to its aggressive strategy of international expansion. Michael Tamblyn, the Chief Content Officer at Kobo explained their strategy. “Normally when we enter a new market, we start off with the local publishers, small presses and top publishers that market ebooks in that country. We then send over key personal that have at least 20 years experience in book rights and have a well established connection base to tap into. Once we have publishers on-board that offer ebooks in whatever local language we are going after, we go where the book buyers are. It does not make sense to offer our hardware in tech electronic stores, because our base of customers are book buyers. I would much rather sell one e-reader to a book lover, than three to a tech enthusiast. This is why we normally partner with bookstores, and put our e-readers side by side with physical books.”

Shortcovers was the digital book ecosystem that was apart of the Indigo organization around five years ago. It was established to give the bookstore chain a viable entry point to start selling ebooks. The company transformed into Kobo and had millions of dollars invested into them by Indigo and a few other partners. Last year, the Company was picked up by Japanese e-commerce website Rakuten. How much say does Rakuten have in the business practices of Kobo? Michael explained, “The main reason why the Rakuten deal made sense is because our vision of the company fell in line with theirs. We don’t receive mandates from them and they mainly let our business run autonomously. One of the ways we benefit is the sharing of technology to really allows us to grow up fast. They have poured millions of dollars into features like Search, and various databases that really help us manage our company more effectively.” Kobo has since expanded the Toronto headquarters and now has close to 500 employees.

There are a few big markets that Kobo is very interested in expanding into next, but present a myriad of challenges. India is one big market they are trying to break into, but the publishing market has not embraced digital yet. This challenges Kobo to educate the publishing community on the merits of digital and uses their own metrics and statistics on how similar markets have blossomed by embracing ebooks. The bigger the market, like India and China, the longer it takes to break into.

Kobo certainly has the ebook ecosystem nailed down, with over three million titles and thousands of graphic novels, comic books, and manga. The obvious next step is digital magazines and kids books. Many people use the Kobo ARC, the companies second iteration Android tablet, but many more use the Kobo app for iOS, Blackberry, and Android. This gives the company an established base of people who use a full color screen, which makes the prospect of magazines extremely viable. This is a new market for Kobo, and presents challenges in talking to a new segment of the industry, but by this summer we should expect a new section of magazines in the Kobo bookstore.


GoodEReader sat down with Steve Potash, CEO of OverDrive, and Dominique Raccah, CEO of Sourcebooks, at this week’s BookExpo America event to talk about the early results of their joint experiment in ebook lending, the Big Library Read. This experiment made one Sourcebooks title, The Four Corners of the Sky by Michael Malone, available simultaneously to all patrons of over 3,500 OverDrive partner libraries.

“OverDrive has been working with a lot of very forward-looking publishers and for many years has appreciated the important role of the public library with connecting readers with books and authors,” explained Potash. “We’ve had a few major trade houses that claimed there wasn’t good information, there wasn’t enough experience, and I felt for many years that was wrong. It’s been now ten years that public libraries have been lending ebooks from HarperCollins, John Wiley & Sons, Harlequin, and Sourcebooks.

“There are a lot of so-called industry experts who don’t know the library market and don’t the value that libraries bring to authors. I said ‘Let’s try an experiment.’ I naturally called Dominique, who is an entrepreneur on 360-sides of this book business. I came up with a check list to demonstrate very quickly how libraries are helping readers connect with authors and get authors discovered.”

There were some key considerations for the Big Library Read. Potash approached Raccah for an author who had an established book, who had other titles available, and for whom Sourcebooks had worldwide rights. It also depended on finding an author who was willing to give up a lot of potential income from letting so many readers access his work at once. Potash believes that Sourcebooks’ involvement in this experiment was akin to a donation of hundreds of thousands of dollars.

“Tens of thousands of people have read this book, and the libraries and patrons got it at no cost, thanks to Michael Malone and Sourcebooks,” said Potash.

“Michael did an incredible job,” said Raccah. “He’s a remarkable guy. Michael really got it.”

Raccah pointed out that the speed of developing the project ended up hurting the participation in the project, estimating that only roughly one third of the libraries invited to participate actually did so. But from OverDrive’s perspective, that only added to the value of the data.

“Not every library book is going to get a two-month pre-release marketing campaign with press releases and posters,” said Potash. “This book just showed up, and I’m trying to show that just by being there and being merchandised on the libraries’ home pages that this book got over seven million cover impressions (views), and from that we’re getting over ten thousand people a day looking at the title detail page and the description. We’re getting thousands of people looking at the free sample. Even people who don’t have a library card.”

That last consideration is vital in this experiment. Not only did patrons discover an author through the Big Library Read, individuals who found the title online due to increased traffic and sharing went to their local libraries and requested cards, increasing overall library traffic.

Was the project a success? With over 40,000 public library patrons currently reading the title, it would seem so. Libraries are already ordering a copy of all of Malone’s other works, but Potash predicts that sales to libraries are going to take off.

“I want to be very clear,” said Raccah. “Fundamentally, you’re not going to see an uptick right away. If you see one, it will be after the promotion. We’re already seeing an increase in sales, but the big increases are from a very small base. I’m more interested in seeing what happens at the end of the promo, and what happens in an on-going basis. That’s what we’re looking for.”

For now, a few things are fact. This title had modest weekly sales before the promotion, and its ranking on Amazon has gone up due to patrons purchasing the book or sharing the information about the book. The author, who had a very limited social media presence, has seen a significant increase in fans. Most importantly, the libraries who participated are all now being invited to participate in future projects of this kind and to serve on advisory panels for how lending needs to extend its reach.


The first ever digital publishing hackathon took place over the weekend at The Alley in New York. Organized by Perseus Books Group and Librify, the event transpired over 32 consecutive hours and was attended by 200 people. Over 30 different teams sought to develop new ideas for digital book discovery.

“It was exciting to watch 200 people come together at one time in one space and grapple with the challenge of digital book discovery,” said Rick Joyce, CMO of Perseus and one of the judges. “Not only were fascinating solutions developed, but there was a lot for a publishing person to learn about the ways content is connected and discovered digitally from these talented designers and coders.”

The finalists have now been selected and the final award will be announced at Book Expo America. All of the selected entrants will also receive coaching from publishing and technology mentors and have 10 days to work on their project. We now have a copy of the finalists that have participated in the hackathon.

•Library Integration Challenge from NYPL – $1,000 was awarded to Visibrary (Sara Michener, Carrie Segal, Alessandra Nova, Iv Segal) for the best library discovery project or the best integration of library data.

•Children’s / Literacy Challenge from NYPL – $500 was awarded to the Evoke team (listed above) for the best project for children and adults that either (a) enables book discovery, (b) encourages a love of reading, or (c) facilitates literacy.

•Avalon Travel Discovery Challenge – $500 was awarded to BookCity (listed above) for the project that best promotes discovery books related to travel.

•Manuscript to Metadata Challenge from PublicAffairs – $500 was awarded to (Megha Gulati, Rajeev Gulati) for the best approach to improving metadata from the manuscript.

•Pearson API Challenge – $250 was awarded to Evoke for the best use of either (or both) of Pearson’s APIs.


The IDPF is holding a two day event before the main Book Expo America Starts in late may. This is a major digital publishing event featuring the who’s who of the ebook, e-reader, and self-publishing world. The main speaker list has been finalized and one of the new executives to lead a session is Otis Chandler, Co-founder and CEO of Goodreads. He will share an update and tackle questions from the crowd, including: What’s next for Goodreads now that it’s owned by Amazon? What does the recent sale mean for the 17 million members, 530 million books and 23 million reviews?
Other speakers include:

  • Malcolm Gladwell, bestselling author and staff writer for The New Yorker will speculate on the digital future with Brad Stone, Bloomberg Businessweek writer and author of the upcoming The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon.
  • Paul Aiken, Executive Director of the Authors Guild, will speak out for his constituents in the sale versus licensing digital content controversy, sharing the stage with the other side, John Ossenmacher of ReDigi, moderated by former Tools of Change icon, Joe Wikert.
  • Allen Lau of Wattpad, Kristen McLean of Bookigee and Anne Kubek of INscribe Digital will enrich the audience with tips on how to engage deeper with readers.
  • Sylvia Day and Jennifer Armentrout will reveal their secrets on how to be a successful and bestselling hybrid author.
  • Paul Belfanti (Pearson), Kent Freeman (VitalSource), Evan St. Lifer (Scholastic), Daniel Fountenberry (Borne Digital), Rebecca Tomasini (The Alvo Institute), Ken Brooks (Cengage), Diana Rhoten (Amplify) and more digital education pioneers will show us what 21st century learning platforms and classrooms should really look like and why.
  • Steve Potash (OverDrive), Jeff Jaffe (World Wide Web Consortium) and John Wheeler (SPi Global) will cover the open web platform, EPUB 3 and HTML 5, while Markus Gylling (DAISY) and Bill Kasdorf (Apex CoVantage) will share the latest EPUB 3 developments and features and Liz Castro (Author) will put them into action.
  • Chris Kitchener of Adobe and Steve Matteson of Monotype will explore how to enhance a reader’s experience through typography and fonts.
  • Eve Hill (Department of Justice), George Kerscher (DAISY and 2013 Presidential Appointee) and Robin Seaman (Benetech) will cover accessibility in the digital world.

Registration remains open but the IDPF Digital Book Conference sells out every year. Register today at: Paid admission to IDPF Digital Book 2013 includes free admission to the BookExpo America trade show and exhibit hall, including the Digital Discovery Zone by IDPF.


The schedule for IDPF Digital Book Conference is set for May 29th to the 30th at the Javits Center in New York. This event transpires every year right before the start of Book Expo America. It is the most definitive gathering of stalwart digital heroes and focuses on the trends in ebooks, self-publishing, e-readers, and what companies are doing.

The incredibly rich 2013 speaker list ranges from bestselling authors like Malcolm Gladwell, Sylvia Day, and Jennifer Armentrout; media masters like Brad Stone of Bloomberg Businessweek, Laura Hazard Owen of paidContent, Jeremy Greenfield of Digital Book World, and Phil Sexton of F+W Media; top executives from the Big 6 houses; the Author’s Guild and the US Department of Justice; top children’s and educational publishers like Scholastic, Cengage, and Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; industry visionaries, such as Matt McInnis of Inkling, Allen Lau of Wattpad, Kristen McLean of Bookigee, Richard Nash of Small Demons, Corey Pressman of Exprima Media, Mark Ury of Storybird, Hugh McGuire of PressBooks, Craig Mod, John Ossenmacher of ReDigi, Anne Kubek of InScribe Digital, Josh Schanker of BookBub, and more; and finally, industry giants Barnes and Noble, Kobo, and Google. There are just too many speakers to mention, but the complete list can be seen here:

Paid admission to IDPF Digital Book 2013 includes free admission to the BookExpo America trade show and exhibit hall, including the Digital Discovery Zone by IDPF. Early bird rates are in effect through May 1, 2013. Registration is available at an incredible rate: $389 ($259 for IDPF members / $329 non-profits). To register, please visit: Follow event updates on Twitter @digitalbook13.


Good e-Reader and the International Digital Publishing Forum have struck an agreement on a new sponsorship deal. Good e-Reader now joins Publishers Weekly as the companies media sponsor, covering all major IDPF events. The first major event that is happening in May, is the Digital Book show that is happening at Book Expo America.

IDPF Digital Book 2013 at BookExpo America is a two-day conference focused on all the key issues we face in advancing publishing in an increasingly digital world. Digital Book 2013 is designed to give executives, marketers and technologists practical information and tools to inspire and lead organizations in this time of rapid change. In-depth sessions will analyze key opportunities and pitfalls, highlighting compelling business strategies and actionable solutions.

This two-day conference will feature insightful keynote sessions and three parallel tracks of targeted in-depth content (business & marketing, technology and production, and education and professional publishing). There will be many excellent sessions that Good e-Reader will cover and bring you the biggest news that develops.Every year at Digital Book and Book Expo America, many major announcements are made.

Good e-Reader is proud to sponsor the IDPF. The company is mainly responsible for promoting and the development of electronic publishing applications and products that will benefit creators of content, makers of reading systems, and consumers. The IDPF develops and maintains the EPUB content publication standard that enables the creation and transport of reflowable digital books and other types of content as digital publications that are interoperable between disparate EPUB-compliant reading devices and applications.